Wine is the drink obtained by the natural fermentation of ripe grape juice. In terms of composition, wine is a set of elements that combine in a complex and inconsistent way: water, sugars, alcohols, esters, acids, minerals, nitrogenous substances, acetaldehyde, phenolic substances, pigments, vitamins... 2 to 3% of the components of wine are still a mystery, hence the impossibility of reproducing it in the laboratory.
There are three kinds of wines:
Still wines (red, white or rosé), whose first two colors can be declined in dry wines or sweet wines according to the quantity of residual sugars.
Sparkling wines, which undergo a second fermentation in the bottle (champagne, crémant, vouvray, blanquette de Limoux...).
Natural or mutated sweet wines ( port, sherry...), to which a neutral brandy is added to stop the fermentation, thus preserving a certain natural sugar content.